Archives of Maryland
(Biographical Series)

Frederick Douglass (1818-1895)
MSA SC 3520-13800


Born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey, February 1818, in Talbot County, Maryland.  Son of African-American Harriet Bailey and a white father.  Married first wife Anna Murray on September 15, 1838 in New York City; five children were Rosetta (b. June 24, 1839), Lewis Henry (b. October 9, 1840), Frederick, Jr. (b. March 3, 1842), Charles Remond (b. October 21, 1844),  and Anna Marie "Annie" (b. March 22, 1849).  Married second wife Helen Pitts.  Died in Washington, D.C., February 20, 1895.  Buried at Mount Hope Cemetery in Rochester, New York.

Frederick Douglass was born into slavery on the Eastern Shore of Maryland in 1818.  As a young man he escaped from slavery and settled in Rochester, New York, where he published the North Star and Frederick Douglass' Paper, worked to assist other runaway slaves to find  freedom and became known for his passionate and eloquent speaking on the brutality of slavery.  Through his newspaper he reported on the anti-slavery movement to Northerners.  He worked with such abolitionists and social reformers as William Lloyd Garrison, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, John Brown, and Gerrit Smith.

With the Civil War looming after John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia, Douglass was forced to leave the country in order to avoid arrest.  After a while he returned to become a staunch advocate of the Union cause.  He helped recruit African-American troops for the Union Army, and two of his own sons served in the all-black 54th Massachusetts Regiment.  He developed a personal relationship with President Lincoln that helped to make emancipation a cause of the Civil War.

In 1872, Douglass moved to Washington, D.C., where he served as publisher of the New National Era, a newspaper advocating African-American improvement.  Douglass also served briefly as President of the Freedmen's National Bank, and subsequently in various national service positions such as U.S. Marshal for the District of Columbia, and diplomatic positions in Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Douglass' papers and other materials are held at the Frederick Douglass National Historical Site.

Return to Frederick Douglass's Introductory Page

This web site is presented for reference purposes under the doctrine of fair use. When this material is used, in whole or in part, proper citation and credit must be attributed to the Maryland State Archives. PLEASE NOTE: The site may contain material from other sources which may be under copyright. Rights assessment, and full originating source citation, is the responsibility of the user.

Tell Us What You Think About the Maryland State Archives Website!

[ Archives' Home Page  ||  Maryland Manual On-Line  ||  Reference & Research
||  Search the Archives   ||  Education & Outreach  ||  Archives of Maryland Online ]

Governor     General Assembly    Judiciary     Maryland.Gov

© Copyright May 02, 2007 Maryland State Archives